Combustion - Liquid Fuels
Combustion of liquid fuels (residual oil, diesel fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, butane, and propane) in boilers, engines, turbines, and other miscellaneous combustion devices results in the release of several criteria pollutants and toxic air contaminants to the atmosphere. (Diesel-fired engines are discussed separately; see “Combustion – Diesel Fired Engines.”) Emissions typically include NOx, SOx, ROG, PM, CO, benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, xylenes, trace organic substances, and some metals. Most emission factors are derived from source test results and fuel analyses. Testing may include the speciation of non-methane organic compounds in the stack gas exhaust. Factors can also be derived by applying an average destruction efficiency to combustible components of the fuel. Stack testing for metals is considered less reliable for emission estimation purposes than mass balance techniques based on fuel analyses.