Antimicrobial Resistance

Page last updated 03/22/2024.

Antimicrobial Resistance (AR) is when pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, change so that the medicine used to treat them does not work as well. Over time, this makes it harder to treat infections, which can increase the risk of getting sick or dying.  AR pathogens can cause healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), which are infections that a patient can get during medical care. 

This page provides resources to help healthcare workers to learn more about AR pathogens. 

Candida auris (C. auris)

[kan·duh·duh—aa·ruhs]

C. auris is an emerging AR fungus that presents a serious global health threat.

What is C. auris?

  • C. auris was first identified in San Diego County in 2021.
  • C. auris is a fungal pathogen that can cause serious infections. It can spread in healthcare facilities. 
  • People can carry C. auris on their bodies, even if it is not making them sick. This is called colonization. 
  • C. auris can live on surfaces and equipment in the patient care environment for long periods of time.
  • C. auris can spread in healthcare facilities through contact with contaminated patient care environment and equipment.  

Why is C. auris a concern?

  • C. auris is often multidrug-resistant, meaning that these infections may no longer respond to the medicines used to treat them. 
  • It has caused outbreaks in healthcare settings. Therefore, it is important to identify C. auris so that healthcare facilities can take special precautions to stop its spread. 

How can the spread of C. auris be prevented?

Where can I get more information?
  • County of San Diego
    • Educational Materials

Candida Auris (C. auris) Frequently Asked Questions for Patients and Family Members

English | معلومات باللغة العربية (Arabic) | 中文信息 (Chinese) | علومات به زبان دری (Dari) | فارسی (Farsi) | 한국어 정보 (Korean) | Macluumaad Af-Soomaali ah (Somali) | Español (Spanish) | Impormasyon sa Tagalog (Tagalog) | Thông Tin Bằng Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese)

Candida Auris (C. auris) What Healthcare Staff Should Know

English | معلومات باللغة العربية (Arabic) | 中文信息 (Chinese) | علومات به زبان دری (Dari) | فارسی (Farsi) | 한국어 정보 (Korean) | Macluumaad Af-Soomaali ah (Somali) | Español (Spanish) | Impormasyon sa Tagalog (Tagalog) | Thông Tin Bằng Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese)

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB)

[kaar·buh·peh·nuhm —ruh·zi·stnt—a·suh·neh·tuh·bak·tr—bow·maa·nee]

CRAB is a type of bacteria that can be resistant to many of the antibiotics available. 

What is CRAB?
  • Acinetobacter is a group of bacteria (germs) commonly found in the environment, (e.g., soil and water). While there are many types, the most common cause of Acinetobacter infections in humans is Acinetobacter baumanniiAcinetobacter baumannii can cause infections in the blood, urinary tract, lungs, wounds, or other parts of the body. It can also colonize, or live on a person, especially in their respiratory secretions (sputum) or open wounds without causing infections or symptoms.

Why is CRAB a concern?

  • Carbapenems are a class of very powerful antibiotics, often only used to treat severe bacterial infections. 
  • Acinetobacter, and many other bacteria, can adapt quickly that many antibiotics are not effective in treating infections, including carbapenem antibiotics. This leads to the inability to effectively treat infections caused by CRAB, and other similar pathogens.

How can the spread of CRAB be prevented?

Where can I get more information?
  • County of San Diego
    • Educational Materials    

CRAB Frequently Asked Questions for Patients and Family Members

English | معلومات باللغة العربية (Arabic) | 中文信息 (Chinese) | علومات به زبان دری (Dari) | فارسی (Farsi) | 한국어 정보 (Korean) | Macluumaad Af-Soomaali ah (Somali) | Español (Spanish) | Impormasyon sa Tagalog (Tagalog) | Thông Tin Bằng Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese)

CRAB What Healthcare Staff Should Know

English | معلومات باللغة العربية (Arabic) | 中文信息 (Chinese) | علومات به زبان دری (Dari) | فارسی (Farsi) | 한국어 정보 (Korean) | Macluumaad Af-Soomaali ah (Somali) | Español (Spanish) | Impormasyon sa Tagalog (Tagalog) | Thông Tin Bằng Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese)

Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA)

[kaar·buh·peh·nuhm —ruh·zi·stnt—soo·duh·mow·nuhs—eh·roo·gi·now·suh]

CRPA is a type of bacteria that presents a serious public health threat.

What is CRPA?
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a type of bacteria commonly found in water sources and healthcare environments. These bacteria can become resistant to several types of antibiotics called Carbapenems, which are medicines used to treat bacteria. They can cause serious infections in your blood, lungs, and other parts of the body. They can spread in healthcare settings through contaminated hands, water, medical equipment, and surfaces. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can often live in your body even if you don’t feel sick. This is called colonization.

Why is CRPA a concern?

  • When Pseudomonas aeruginosa resist the medicine used to treat them, such as Carbapenems, it is much harder to treat infections caused by CRPA. This means that treatment options become limited and less effective against infections caused by CRPA. It is important to note that Carbapenems are the last line of defense, or last-resort antibiotics, because they are very effective against many types of bacteria and are less vulnerable to most beta-lactam resistances, which prevents other treatments being effective in treating bacterial infections.

How can the spread of CRPA be prevented?

Where can I get more information?
  • County of San Diego
    • Educational Materials 

CRPA Frequently Asked Questions for Patients and Family Members

English | معلومات باللغة العربية (Arabic) | 中文信息 (Chinese) | علومات به زبان دری (Dari) | فارسی (Farsi) | 한국어 정보 (Korean) | Macluumaad Af-Soomaali ah (Somali) | Español (Spanish) | Impormasyon sa Tagalog (Tagalog) | Thông Tin Bằng Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese)

CRPA What Healthcare Staff Should Know

English | معلومات باللغة العربية (Arabic) | 中文信息 (Chinese) | علومات به زبان دری (Dari) | فارسی (Farsi) | 한국어 정보 (Korean) | Macluumaad Af-Soomaali ah (Somali) | Español (Spanish) | Impormasyon sa Tagalog (Tagalog) | Thông Tin Bằng Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese)

 Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales (CRE)

[kaar·buh·peh·nuhm—ruh·zi·stnt—en·tr·ow·bak·ter·ah·luhs]

CRE is a group of bacteria that can be resistant to many commonly used antibiotics.
 

What is CRE?
  • Enterobacterales are a large group of different types of bacteria that commonly cause infections in healthcare settings. They are normally found in the human gut and can cause serious infections in the blood, lungs, urinary tract, and wounds. They can be spread from person-to-person, contaminated hands, and unclean medical equipment. Many different types of Enterobacterales, including Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli., can become resistant to several types of antibiotics, such as Carbapenems. They can live in your body even if you do not feel sick, which is called colonization.
  • Carbapenems are a type of antibiotic that is very effective in combatting against a wide variety of bacteria. Carbapenems are also commonly known to be a last-resort antibiotic since many antibiotics used first to treat Enterobacterales become vulnerable to beta-lactam resistances while Carbapenems are less vulnerable to those resistances. When Enterobacterales become resistant to Carbapenems, treatments options become limited for people infected with CRE and can cause worse health outcomes.
How can the spread of CRPA be prevented?
Where can I get more information?
  • County of San Diego
    • Educaitonal Materials 

CRE Frequently Asked Questions for Patients and Family Members

English | معلومات باللغة العربية (Arabic) | 中文信息 (Chinese) | علومات به زبان دری (Dari) | فارسی (Farsi) | 한국어 정보 (Korean) | Macluumaad Af-Soomaali ah (Somali) | Español (Spanish) | Impormasyon sa Tagalog (Tagalog) | Thông Tin Bằng Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese)

CRE What Healthcare Staff Should Know

English | معلومات باللغة العربية (Arabic) | 中文信息 (Chinese) | علومات به زبان دری (Dari) | فارسی (Farsi) | 한국어 정보 (Korean) | Macluumaad Af-Soomaali ah (Somali) | Español (Spanish) | Impormasyon sa Tagalog (Tagalog) | Thông Tin Bằng Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese)

For more information, contact the San Diego HAI program through our contact form, via e-mail at phs.hai.hhsa@sdcounty.ca.gov, or call the Epidemiology Unit at (619) 692-8499.